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Accusative Case

The Accusative Case

The case of limitation or extension.

The Accusative of Direct Object

The most common use of the Accusative is as the object of a transitive verb (a verb whose action passes over to the noun). This use is also described as the Accusative with Transitive Verbs.

The Adverbial Accusative

In this use, the Accusative limits in an indirect way. It functions as an adverbial modifier. It modifies a verb rather than serving as a direct object. It is sometimes referred to as “the Accusative of General Reference.” This is not very common in the N.T. except in the case of the pure adverb.

The Adverbial Accusative of Measure

The word in the Accusative indicates how the action of the verb takes place. It answers the question “how?”.

The Adverbial Accusative of Reference

The word in the Accusative indicates what the action of the verb refers to by answering the question “with reference to what?” This use also includes the Accusative of General Reference, i.e. a word in the Accusative used much like a subject with an infinitive.

The Cognate Accusative

In this usage, the verb and its object are derived from the same root. It is used sometimes for emphasis. Basically, it repeats and explains more fully the idea expressed by the verb.

The Double Accusative

Some verbs require two objects to complete their meaning. This use is really an expansion of the Accusative of Direct Object from one object to two objects. Sometimes it may even use three Accusatives.

The Double Accusative with a Personal and Impersonal Object

This is sometimes referred to as the Accusative of the person or of the thing.

The Double Accusative and a Direct and Predicate Object

This use […]

Accusative Case2023-12-11T12:15:34-08:00

Locative Case

The Locative Case

The case of position or location.

Locative of Place

The Locative is used to express spatial limitations. It locates within a spot or an area. It occurs either with or without prepositions.

The Locative of Time

The Locative expresses time as a point of time, not as duration (the accusative case – extent of) or time within which (the genitive case- kind of time). Position is clear in that it indicates the time at which, i.e. at this point of time.

The Locative of Sphere

This use is often listed under the Locative of place. It is the figurative or metaphorical use. It locates within logically rather than within spatial or temporal limits. This use is used with nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

The Locative with Nouns

The Locative may occur with nouns.

The Locative with Verbs

The Locative may occur with verbs.

The Locative with Adjectives

The Locative may also occur with adjectives.

The Pregnant use of the Locative

The Locative is used where we would expect to find ei” with the accusative after verbs of motion or rest. In the N.T. it always occurs with a preposition. While the Accusative emphasizes extension, the Locative emphasizes location. This use is common in the N.T. with ἐν. It also occurs with πάρα and ἐπί with ἐν in composition.

© 2017 Luther Walker | All Rights Reserved | ISBN-10: 0-9993211-0-2, ISBN-13: 978-0-9993211-0-2 | This book or any potion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review or scholarly journal.

Locative Case2023-12-11T12:15:54-08:00

Dative Case

The Dative Case

The case of personal interest. It expresses the indirect object.

The Dative of Indirect Object

This use is closest to the root idea of personal interest. The one from whom or in whose interest an act is done is indicated.

The Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage

This use is very similar to the Dative of Indirect Object. The personal interest expressed by the indirect object is intensified. The Dative of Advantage indicates the person for whose benefit something is done. The Dative of Disadvantage indicates the person who will be adversely affected as the result of the action. “Against” will often be used in this translation of the Dative of Disadvantage, “for” the Dative of Advantage and “to” the indirect object. This is sometimes referred to as the “Ethical Dative”.

Dative of Possession

Personal interest is particularized to the point of ownership. There is no exact equivalent in English.

The Dative of Reference

The idea of personal interest is reduced to mere reference. This use deals mostly with things, though occasionally it may deal with people. it may be rendered “in the interest of,” “with reference to,” “concerning.” or “about.”

The Dative with Nouns

The Dative is used with nouns only where personal interest is expressed.

The Dative of Adjectives

When used with adjective, the Dative has the personal flavor just like it does with nouns.

The Dative with Prepositions and Adverbs

The Dative with prepositions and adverbs is rare in the N.T.

The Dative with Verbs

The Dative is most frequently used with verbs. The idea of personal interest is clear with many verbs.

The Dative with Intransitive Verbs […]

Dative Case2023-12-11T12:16:03-08:00

Genitive Case

Genitive Case

The case of definition or description.

The Genitive of Description

This use is closest to the root idea of the case. The genitive limits a noun much like an adjective. It falls under this classification when it does not fit any other. This use is also referred to as “the Attributive Genitive” or “the Qualitative Genitive.” It emphasizes kind.

The Genitive of Possession

The Genitive frequently defines, describes, and limits by denoting ownership.

The Genitive of Relationship

The Genitive may describe a person having some genital or marital relationship with another person. This relationship may extend to a household. In this usage the noun is omitted because it is clear from the context or it is well known to the recipients. The definite article usually occurs in the proper gender along with the Genitive of the person related.

The Adverbial Genitive

The Adverbial Genitive is used to describe, define, and limit as to kind of – time, place, general reference, and measure. The emphasis is this kind and not that kind.

Genitive of Time

Kind of time is defined. It may answer the question “what kind of time?” it is this kind of time in which something takes place, it is this time and not that time.

Genitive of Place

The kind of place is defined. The idea of contact is prominent. It may answer the question “what kind of place?” The emphasis is on kind, i.e. the kind of place within which an event takes place. It is “here and not there.” It limits to a kind of place. This use does not occur frequently in the N.T., since place is usually described by the Locative.

Genitive of Reference

The […]

Genitive Case2023-12-11T12:16:23-08:00

Nominative Case

Nominative Case

The case of specific designation, the naming case.

The Subject Nominative


This use denotes more specifically who or what produces the action or presents the state expressed by the finite verb. It is otherwise known as the “Nominative of Apposition.”

The Predicate Nominative

This is the use of the Nominative case in apposition after copulative verbs, i.e. εἰμι , γίνομαι, etc. The verb is often left out and must be supplied from the context. This use is sometimes called the “subject compliment.” It occurs where one would expect to find the Accusative case.

The Nominative Absolute

Here the Nominative case stands without connection to the rest of the sentence. It is used in titles to call attention emphatically to the person or thing spoken of. It is also called “the suspended,” “independence” or “hanging” Nominative. It refers to an idea. Most of the examples could fit into other categories.

The Nominative in Exclamations

This use of the Nominative is a sort of interjectional Nominative, which expresses feeling. It occurs without a verb to stress the distinctiveness of a thought.

The Parenthetical Nominative

This use is very similar to the Nominative Absolute. Its function is to explain or expand. Dana and Mantey refer to it under the “Independent Nominative.” Cf. the Nominative Absolute above.

The Nominative of Apposition

This use denotes more specifically who or what produces the action or presents the state expressed by the finite verb. It is otherwise known as the “Subject Nominative.”

The Nominative of Appellation

In this use, a noun or title retains the Nominative form irrespective of contextual relationships. Sometimes it is practically equivalent to quotation marks.

The Nominative Case Unaltered

The noun is not altered to the case of the noun with which it stands in apposition. […]

Nominative Case2023-12-11T12:16:34-08:00
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