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Indicative Mood

The Indicative  Mood

Indicates the verbal idea as actual.

The Declarative Indicative

This use of the indicative makes a simple statement of fact.

The Interrogative Indicative

The indicative mood is used to ask a simple question. Reality is implied in a fact asked about in the indicative mood.

The Cohortative Indicative

The indicative may be used to express a command or a strong suggestion. This is especially true of the future indicative.

The Potential Indicative

The indicative is sometimes accompanied by the idea of contingency. This idea is given by the use of ἄν, the meaning of the verb, or by context. ἄν may or may not be used.

The indicative may be used to express a necessity and from the necessity an obligation. Usually with ἔδει.

Wish (unfulfilled- ὀφείλον – would that) or impulse.

Used in Certain Forms of Conditions

Positive and Negative

οὐ – expects an affirmative reply

μή – expects a negative answer

Indicative Mood = Reality



ἔλυ (ον)                      ἐλύ (ομεν)

ἔλυ (ες)                       ἐλύ (ετε)

ἔλυ (ς)                         ἔλυ (ον)

Middle / Passive

ἐλυ (ὀμην)                ἐλυ (ὀμεθα)

ἐλύ (ου)                      ἐλύ (εσθε)

ἐλύ (ετο)                    ἐλυ (όντο)



λύ(ω)                          λύ (ομεν)

λύ (εις                        λύ (ετε)

λύ (ει)                         λύ (ουσι)

Middle / Passive

λύ (ομαι)                   λυ (όμεθα)

λύ (ῃ)                          λύ (εσθε)

λύ (εται)                    λύ (ονται)



λύ (σω)                      λύ (σομεν)

λύ (σεις)                    λύ (σετε)

λύ (σει)                      λύ (σουσι)


λύ (σομαι)                λύ (σομεθα)

λύ (σῃ)                       λύ (σεθε)

λυ (σεται)                 λύ (σονται)


λυ (θήσομαι)           λυ (θησόμεθα)

λυ (θήσῃ)                  λυ (θήσεσθε)

λυ (θήεται)               λυ (θήσονται)

1st Aorist


ἔλυ (σα)                      ἔλυ (σαμεν)

Indicative Mood2023-12-11T12:17:48-08:00

Optative Mood

The Optative Mood

The mood of strong contingency or possibility. It expresses no definite anticipation of realization, rather, it only presents the action as conceivable.

The Volitive Optative (Wishes)

This use denotes a wish. It is the ordinary verbal form for expressing wishes and is the most common use of the optative.

The Potential Optative (Futuristic)

This use signifies what would happen on the fulfillment of some supposed condition. It is used in a clause which implies condition. The particle ἄν usually occurs with this use. It simply states that a thing could, or might be possible.

The Deliberative Optative

The Optative is used a few times in the New Testament to express indirect questions. This use involves ἔιν (third person singular of the Present of εἰμίv). Normally an indirect question is expressed by the Indicative; however, the Optative gives the question a more tentative and cautious tone.

The Conditional Optative

This use, using ἄν or εί, is related to the potential Optative. The condition of the Optative is part of the fourth-class conditional sentence. Either the είv in the protasis with the Optative or the ἄν in the apodosis with the Optative will be found, but not both at the same time.

The Optative in Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Speech


The Optative is used in clauses introduced by πρίν ἥ.

Optative Mood = Not Likely (Wishful)



1st Aorist

2nd Aorist

1st Perfect

2nd Perfect

Future Perfect

© 2017 Luther Walker | All Rights Reserved | This book or any potion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations […]

Optative Mood2023-12-11T12:17:26-08:00


The Greek Verb

The verb is the part of a sentence that expresses the action or state of being. Some verbs require an object to complete the sentence where others do not due to their inherent meaning. Transitive or intransitive is a characteristic of the verb, not expressed or modified by the voice. Transitive verbs take a direct object. Intransitive verbs do not need a direct object to complete their meaning.

Five Identifying Features of the Greek Verb

The Greek verb has five identifying features: Mode (Mood), Tense, Voice, Person, Number.

Mode (Mood)

Represents the way in which the action is perceived. Two viewpoints are expressed: that which is actual and that which is possible.


Identifies type and time of action. The kind of action is the principle idea involved with the Greek tense, whereas the time of action is secondary. Kinds of actions are continuous, occurring, and completed.


Indicates how the subject relates to the action or state of the verb.


The subject is producing the action or state expressed by the verb.


The subject participates in or directly benefits from the result of the action or state expressed in the verb.


The subject receives the action or state of the verb.

Person and Number

Person and number determine the relation of the subject to the action of the verb. The verb will always agree with its subject in person and number.

Deponent or Defective Verbs

Deponent means “to lay aside” and defective is used to imply that a word has no active voice. However, both terms are inadequate to describe the use of a middle or passive in place of the active voice. The active form did exist; however, through use dropped off because the middle or passive voice by the nature of the word and its use became predominate. However, to say it has “laid aside” its active voice is incorrect and contrary to the history of […]


Future Tense

The Future Tense Verb

The Kind of Action of the Future Tense:

Primarily punctiliar, though linear in some contexts. Often used with the Indicative to indicate future time.

The Predicative  Future 

This use denotes an event that is expected to take place in the future. This is the most common use of the tense.

The Progressive Future 

This use conveys action as going on in the future. The emphasis is simply on the action in progress in the future. The writer thought of it as continuing, not that it was going to be continued.

Imperatival  Future

This use is practically an imperative in sense, for it involves the will, either of the speaker or of the subject. Since the imperative naturally relates to the future, it is not an unnatural usage.

The Deliberative Future 

This use denotes the future by expressing a rhetorical question, i.e. one which does not really expect an answer. These questions require deliberation concerning the possibility, or the desirability, or the necessity of a proposed course of activity. It occurs frequently in quotations from the Septuagint.

The Gnomic Future 

This use refers to a general or timeless truth, which is valid for all times. This action is to be expected under certain circumstances. It is used infrequently in the New Testament.

The Periphrastic Future 

This use emphasizes the continuance of an action. It is used to express an action which one intends to do, or of that which is certain or destined to take place. It is similar to the “Progressive Future,” with the thought of continuance or customariness emphasized. It is formed by the future tense of εἰμί with the […]

Future Tense2023-12-11T12:21:15-08:00
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