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Instrumental Case

The Instrumental Case

The case of means or association.

The Instrumental of Means

Usually this use expresses impersonal means. It is closest to the root idea of the case. This use may be determined by the ability to use the words “by means of” or “by” in the translation. Sometimes “with” may be used in translation with the idea of association. (cf. The Instrumental of Agency below).

The Instrumental of Cause

This use expresses cause, motive, or occasion. It goes behind the intermediate means to the original cause or factor producing a result. It may refer to an external cause and thus a motive. This use is determined by the ability to use the word “because” in the translation.

The Instrumental of Manner

This use indicates the method by means of which the action is carried out. A circumstance accompanying the action of the verb is indicated. This use may answer the question “how?” or “in what manner?”.

The Instrumental of Measure

The Instrumental is used to express measure in comparative phrases. Two points of time or space are separated by means of an intervening distance. It is used chiefly with reference to time in the N.T. (The locative indicates a definite point in time. The Instrumental indicates two points separated by an interval of time.).

The Instrumental of Association

The word in the Instrumental indicates that person(s) or thing(s) which accompany or take part in the action of the verb. The key to this use is to find a second party who furnishes the means of association. It often occurs with compounds of σύν. This use, which is also refered to as the “Commutative,” occurs frequently in the N.T. It […]

Instrumental Case2023-12-11T12:15:45-08:00

Ablative Case

The Ablative Case

The case of separation.

The Ablative of Separation

The basic idea of the Ablative is that of separation. It is that from which something departs or is separated.

The Ablative of Source

The idea of origin or source is implied when a word in the Ablative implies the personal agent or means performing the action that is expressed by a verb, usually in the passive voice, or by the verbal adjective. Some refer to this as “the Ablative of Agency.” (Direct agency or ultimate source is usually expressed by ὐπό with the Ablative, intermediate agency by διά with the Genitive and means by the Instrumental with or without ἐν). The Ablative usually is used to express personal agency or means, while the Instrumental usually expressed impersonal means.

The Ablative of Means

The Genitive may describe a person having some genital or marital relationship with another person. This relationship may extend to a household. In this usage the noun is omitted because it is clear from the context or it is well known to the recipients. The definite article usually occurs in the proper gender along with the Genitive of the person related.

The Ablative of Comparison

Comparison implied difference, distinction or separation in degree. The Ablative may also be used with the superlative degree.

The Partitive Ablative

The Ablative is used to indicate the removal of a part from the whole. It is often used with έκ or άπὀ. The emphasis is on separation, while the Genitive emphasizes kind.

The Ablative with Prepositions

The Ablative with prepositions is very common in the N.T. in every occurrence the idea of separation is prevalent. The comparative idea is involved […]

Ablative Case2023-12-11T12:16:13-08:00

Nouns, Articles, and Cases

Nouns, Articles, and Case Endings

Case is determined by function, not form

In the Greek language, it is important to understand that the relationship of the noun to the other words in the sentence always governs the case. Hence, although Genitive and Ablative share the same endings, they are clearly distinguished within the context and function of the sentence. There are eight cases in the Greek language: Nominative, Genitive, Ablative, Dative, Locative, Instrumental, Accusative, and Vocative.

Vocative Case

The case of direct address.

The Nominative Case

The case of specific designation, the naming case.

The Genitive Case

The case of definition or description.

The Dative Case

The case of personal interest. It expresses the indirect object.

The Locative Case

The case of position or location.

The Instrumental Case

The case of means or association.

The Accusative Case

The case of limitation or extension.

© 2017 Luther Walker | All Rights Reserved | ISBN-10: 0-9993211-0-2, ISBN-13: 978-0-9993211-0-2 | This book or any potion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review or scholarly journal.

Nouns, Articles, and Cases2023-12-11T12:23:52-08:00

The Substantial Value of the Blood of Christ Seen through the Different Cases and Prepositions used with the Blood

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Understanding the cases and how they relate to the sentence is extremely important to fully understanding what is being expressed by the author. Since in the Greek language, case is governed by function, not by form, it is important to also look at other aspects of the sentence to determine which case the noun is being used in and then in what way that case is being expressed. Prepositions are also a very significant part of the sentence and often limit the nouns to a specific case because of the function of the preposition. When it comes to the blood of Christ there are many different views; however, the more predominate ones are whether it is figurative or literal. Did Jesus shed His blood on the cross for all mankind or is the blood only being used figuratively of the work of Christ on the cross? In order to understand if a concept is figurative or literal we need to understand how it is being used in the sentence and whether the function is restricted to either figurative or literal all the time. If it is not restricted to one concept or the other, we then need to look at the meaning of the case and the context to determine if it is figurative or literal in application.  As we study Scripture it becomes very clear that the blood of Christ is literal and was shed for the sins of mankind. We see this through the different cases and preposition that are used with the blood of Christ. Each case has its own sphere of understanding and expressed a completely different concept that often times must […]

The Substantial Value of the Blood of Christ Seen through the Different Cases and Prepositions used with the Blood2018-10-28T06:03:04-07:00

Verb

The Greek Verb

The verb is the part of a sentence that expresses the action or state of being. Some verbs require an object to complete the sentence where others do not due to their inherent meaning. Transitive or intransitive is a characteristic of the verb, not expressed or modified by the voice. Transitive verbs take a direct object. Intransitive verbs do not need a direct object to complete their meaning.

Five Identifying Features of the Greek Verb

The Greek verb has five identifying features: Mode (Mood), Tense, Voice, Person, Number.

Mode (Mood)

Represents the way in which the action is perceived. Two viewpoints are expressed: that which is actual and that which is possible.

Tense

Identifies type and time of action. The kind of action is the principle idea involved with the Greek tense, whereas the time of action is secondary. Kinds of actions are continuous, occurring, and completed.

Voice

Indicates how the subject relates to the action or state of the verb.

Active

The subject is producing the action or state expressed by the verb.

Middle

The subject participates in or directly benefits from the result of the action or state expressed in the verb.

Passive

The subject receives the action or state of the verb.

Person and Number

Person and number determine the relation of the subject to the action of the verb. The verb will always agree with its subject in person and number.

Deponent or Defective Verbs

Deponent means “to lay aside” and defective is used to imply that a word has no active voice. However, both terms are inadequate to describe the use of a middle or passive in place of the active voice. The active form did exist; however, through use dropped off because the middle or passive voice by the nature of the word and its use became predominate. However, to say it has “laid aside” its active voice is incorrect and contrary to the history of […]

Verb2023-12-11T12:19:31-08:00
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