The Perfect Tense

The Kind of Action of the Perfect Tense:

Durative and Punctiliar. Completed action with abiding results.

The Dramatic Perfect

An action completed in the past is conceived in terms of the present time for the sake of vividness. This was a use suited for the orator or the dramatist, and was often used in rhetorical questions. John uses it more than any other New Testament writer. It would be similar to ours, “The first thing you know he has done it.” (It is sometimes referred to as the “Present Perfect.”).

The Intensive Perfect 

This use is a strong way of saying that a thing is, denoting an action rather than a state resulting from an action, having the force of an emphatic present. Stress is placed on the existing fact. This is done more forcibly than either the Greek or English present could ever do. This use is primarily used with verbs of senses.