The Dative Case
The case of personal interest. It expresses the indirect object.
The Dative of Indirect Object
This use is closest to the root idea of personal interest. The one from whom or in whose interest an act is done is indicated.
The Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage
This use is very similar to the Dative of Indirect Object. The personal interest expressed by the indirect object is intensified. The Dative of Advantage indicates the person for whose benefit something is done. The Dative of Disadvantage indicates the person who will be adversely affected as the result of the action. “Against” will often be used in this translation of the Dative of Disadvantage, “for” the Dative of Advantage and “to” the indirect object. This is sometimes referred to as the “Ethical Dative”.
Dative of Possession
Personal interest is particularized to the point of ownership. There is no exact equivalent in English.
The Dative of Reference
The idea of personal interest is reduced to mere reference. This use deals mostly with things, though occasionally it may deal with people. it may be rendered “in the interest of,” “with reference to,” “concerning.” or “about.”
The Dative with Nouns
The Dative is used with nouns only where personal interest is expressed.
The Dative of Adjectives
When used with adjective, the Dative has the personal flavor just like it does with nouns.
The Dative with Prepositions and Adverbs
The Dative with prepositions and adverbs is rare in the N.T.
The Dative with Verbs
The Dative is most frequently used with verbs. The idea of personal interest is clear with many verbs.