The Classification of the Participle
The Ascriptive Use
The participle ascribes some fact, quality, or characteristic to the noun, or designates the noun as belonging to a general class
The participle like the adjective may modify the noun in the attributive relation. This construction may occur without an article. John 1:9
The participle may be used like an adjective in the predicate, after a verb of being.
When the participle is not accompanied by a noun it may function as a noun. This construction may be found with or without the article. It may be used as subject, object, or modifier
The Restrictive Use
The participle may denote an affirmation that distinguishes the noun which it qualifies as in some way specially defined, or marked out in its particular identity.
The Ascriptive Participle only assigns a quality or characteristic, the Restrictive Participle denotes distinctiveness.
The Telic Participle
Purpose may be denoted by the participle.
The Temporal Participle
The Participle is used in the sense of a temporal clause, where it may be translated in English by when, after, or while.
The Causal Participle
The Participle may denote that which is the grounds for action in the main verb. Here it functions in the same general relation as a causal clause introduced by because or since.
The Conditional Participle
The participle may function as the protasis of a conditional sentence.
The Concessive Participle
The participle may denote a sense of concession, being used either with or without the concessive particle.
The Instrumental Participle
The participle may indicate the means by which the action of the main verb is accomplished.
The Modal Participle
The participle may signify the manner in which the action of the main verb is accomplished. This use of the participle may be accompanied by ὡς.
The Complementary Participle
The participle may be used to complete the idea of action expressed in the main verb. When so used, it may modify either the subject or object of the verb and agree with it in case.
The Circumstantial Participle
The participle may express an attendant circumstance – an additional fact or thought, which is best rendered in English by the conjunction “and” with a finite construction.
The Participle Used as an Imperative
The participle may be used as an Imperative denoting urgency or a command.
The Tense of the Participle
Ordinarily expressed by the Aorist or Perfect.
Ordinarily expressed by the Present (may be expressed by the Aorist)
Regularly expressed by the Future (may be expressed by the Aorist)
The Periphrastic use of the Participle
The Periphrastic Present
The Present tense of εἰμί with the Present Participle. This construction marks clearly the force of the continuing action.
The Periphrastic Imperfect
The Imperfect tense of εἰμί and the Present Participle.
The Periphrastic Future
The Future tense of εἰμί and the Present Participle.
The Periphrastic Perfect
The Present tense of εἰμί and the Perfect Participle.
The Periphrastic Pluperfect
The Imperfect tense of εἰμί and the Perfect Participle.
The Periphrastic Future Perfect
The Future tense of εἰμί and the Perfect Participle