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Koine Greek – Participles2016-10-13T16:50:51+00:00

## The Classification of the Participle

### The Ascriptive Use

The participle ascribes some fact, quality, or characteristic to the noun, or designates the noun as belonging to a general class

The participle like the adjective may modify the noun in the attributive relation. This construction may occur without an article. John 1:9

The participle may be used like an adjective in the predicate, after a verb of being.

When the participle is not accompanied by a noun it may function as a noun. This construction may be found with or without the article. It may be used as subject, object, or modifier

### The Restrictive Use

The participle may denote an affirmation that distinguishes the noun which it qualifies as in some way specially defined, or marked out in its particular identity.

The Ascriptive Participle only assigns a quality or characteristic, the Restrictive Participle denotes distinctiveness.

## The Telic Participle

Purpose may be denoted by the participle.

## The Temporal Participle

The Participle is used in the sense of a temporal clause, where it may be translated in English by when, after, or while.

#### The Causal Participle

The Participle may denote that which is the grounds for action in the main verb. Here it functions in the same general relation as a causal clause introduced by because or since.

## The Conditional Participle

The participle may function as the protasis of a conditional sentence.

## The Concessive Participle

The participle may denote a sense of concession, being used either with or without the concessive particle.

## The Instrumental Participle

The participle may indicate the means by which the action of the main verb is accomplished.

## The Modal Participle

The participle may signify the manner in which the action of the main verb is accomplished. This use of the participle may be accompanied by ὡς.

## The Complementary Participle

The participle may be used to complete the idea of action expressed in the main verb. When so used, it may modify either the subject or object of the verb and agree with it in case.

## The Circumstantial Participle

The participle may express an attendant circumstance – an additional fact or thought, which is best rendered in English by the conjunction “and” with a finite construction.

## The Participle Used as an Imperative

The participle may be used as an Imperative denoting urgency or a command.

## The Tense of the Participle

### Antecedent Time

Ordinarily expressed by the Aorist or Perfect.

### Simultaneous Time

Ordinarily expressed by the Present (may be expressed by the Aorist)

### Subsequent Time

Regularly expressed by the Future (may be expressed by the Aorist)

## The Periphrastic use of the Participle

### The Periphrastic Present

The Present tense of εἰμί with the Present Participle. This construction marks clearly the force of the continuing action.

### The Periphrastic Imperfect

The Imperfect tense of εἰμί and the Present Participle.

### The Periphrastic Future

The Future tense of εἰμί and the Present Participle.

### The Periphrastic Perfect

The Present tense of εἰμί and the Perfect Participle.

### The Periphrastic Pluperfect

The Imperfect tense of εἰμί and the Perfect Participle.

### The Periphrastic Future Perfect

The Future tense of εἰμί and the Perfect Participle