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Adjectives refer to nouns in two ways: either as an attribute or as a predicate.


The attributive use of the adjective qualifies the noun, to describe, without any assertion about it. The attributive is an adherent description.

The Position: ὀ πίστος δοῦλος or ὀ δοῦλος ὀ πίστος

Note: the adjective comes immediately after the article.


The predicate use of the adjective makes an assertion about the noun. The predicate is an additional statement.

The Position: ὀ δοῦλος πίστος or πίστος ὀ δοῦλος

Note: The adjective does not come immediately after the article but either precedes the article or follows the noun.

The Adjective used as a noun

ὁ ἀγαθός “the good man”.

The Adjective used as an adverb

The adjective is in direct relation to the verbal idea. Determined by whether the adjective is more closely associated with the verb or the noun. Comparison can be seen in John 10:40 and Mark 4:28. In John 10:40 the adjective is more intimately associated with the verb “to be” rendering a reading of “The place where John first baptized.” Where in Mark 4:28 the adjective is modifying the noun.

The Adjective used in Comparison

In this usage, the verb and its object are derived from the same root. It is used sometimes for emphasis. Basically, it repeats and explains more fully the idea expressed by the verb.

The Comparative Degree

Expressed by the positive adjective with a prepositional phrase, followed by ἤ, or followed by μᾶλλον.

Expressed by the comparative adjective followed by ἤ or followed by the ablative.

The Superlative Degree

The majority of the superlatives are used for emphasis in the New Testament, in the sense of very or exceedingly. […]


Ablative Case

The Ablative Case

The case of separation.

The Ablative of Separation

The basic idea of the Ablative is that of separation. It is that from which something departs or is separated.

The Ablative of Source

The idea of origin or source is implied when a word in the Ablative implies the personal agent or means performing the action that is expressed by a verb, usually in the passive voice, or by the verbal adjective. Some refer to this as “the Ablative of Agency.” (Direct agency or ultimate source is usually expressed by ὐπό with the Ablative, intermediate agency by διά with the Genitive and means by the Instrumental with or without ἐν). The Ablative usually is used to express personal agency or means, while the Instrumental usually expressed impersonal means.

The Ablative of Means

The Genitive may describe a person having some genital or marital relationship with another person. This relationship may extend to a household. In this usage the noun is omitted because it is clear from the context or it is well known to the recipients. The definite article usually occurs in the proper gender along with the Genitive of the person related.

The Ablative of Comparison

Comparison implied difference, distinction or separation in degree. The Ablative may also be used with the superlative degree.

The Partitive Ablative

The Ablative is used to indicate the removal of a part from the whole. It is often used with έκ or άπὀ. The emphasis is on separation, while the Genitive emphasizes kind.

The Ablative with Prepositions

The Ablative with prepositions is very common in the N.T. in every occurrence the idea of separation is prevalent. The comparative idea is involved […]

Ablative Case2023-12-11T12:16:13-08:00
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