The Ablative Case
The case of separation.
The Ablative of Separation
The basic idea of the Ablative is that of separation. It is that from which something departs or is separated.
The Ablative of Source
The idea of origin or source is implied when a word in the Ablative implies the personal agent or means performing the action that is expressed by a verb, usually in the passive voice, or by the verbal adjective. Some refer to this as “the Ablative of Agency.” (Direct agency or ultimate source is usually expressed by ὐπό with the Ablative, intermediate agency by διά with the Genitive and means by the Instrumental with or without ἐν). The Ablative usually is used to express personal agency or means, while the Instrumental usually expressed impersonal means.
The Ablative of Means
The Genitive may describe a person having some genital or marital relationship with another person. This relationship may extend to a household. In this usage the noun is omitted because it is clear from the context or it is well known to the recipients. The definite article usually occurs in the proper gender along with the Genitive of the person related.
The Ablative of Comparison
Comparison implied difference, distinction or separation in degree. The Ablative may also be used with the superlative degree.
The Partitive Ablative
The Ablative is used to indicate the removal of a part from the whole. It is often used with έκ or άπὀ. The emphasis is on separation, while the Genitive emphasizes kind.
The Ablative with Prepositions
The Ablative with prepositions is very common in the N.T. in every occurrence the idea of separation is prevalent. The comparative idea is involved in the use with ὑπέρ, πρό and πρός, which implies separation. The ablative with prepositions usually expresses the agent as the source of the action, cf. with ὑπό. ἀπό, ἐκ and πρό always take the Ablative, expressing separation. This is true in compound verbs also.
The Ablative with Verbs
The Ablative occurs with verbs, especially with compound verbs. The idea of separation is still emphasized. It is the natural case to be used with verbs expressing comparison. Some in their root idea are related to the Ablative case.
The Ablative with Verbs of Departure and Removal
ἀπό, ἐκ and παρά are found with the idea of departure.
The Ablative with Verbs Missing, Lacking, Despairing
The Ablative idea of separation lends itself to such verbs.
The Ablative with Verbs of Differing and Excelling
The comparative idea is dominant with these verbs.
The Ablative with Verbs of Asking and Hearing
The idea of separation is seen in asking or hearing from.
The Ablative with Verbs having the Partitive Idea
The ablative is used with verbs having Partitive ideas, especially with ἀπό and ἐκ. The word in the ablative indicates that whole of which the word it modifies is a part. Cf. the “Partitive Ablative” and the “Partitive Genitive”.
The Subjective Genitive
The noun in the Genitive produces the action. It functions as the subject of the verbal idea or the noun modified. Hence, action goes from the noun.
© 2017 Luther Walker | All Rights Reserved | ISBN-10: 0-9993211-0-2, ISBN-13: 978-0-9993211-0-2 | This book or any potion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review or scholarly journal.