The Ablative Case
The case of separation.
The Ablative of Separation
The basic idea of the Ablative is that of separation. It is that from which something departs or is separated.
The Ablative of Source
The idea of origin or source is implied when a word in the Ablative implies the personal agent or means performing the action that is expressed by a verb, usually in the passive voice, or by the verbal adjective. Some refer to this as “the Ablative of Agency.” (Direct agency or ultimate source is usually expressed by ὐπό with the Ablative, intermediate agency by διά with the Genitive and means by the Instrumental with or without ἐν). The Ablative usually is used to express personal agency or means, while the Instrumental usually expressed impersonal means.
The Ablative of Means
The Genitive may describe a person having some genital or marital relationship with another person. This relationship may extend to a household. In this usage the noun is omitted because it is clear from the context or it is well known to the recipients. The definite article usually occurs in the proper gender along with the Genitive of the person related.
The Ablative of Comparison
Comparison implied difference, distinction or separation in degree. The Ablative may also be used with the superlative degree.
The Partitive Ablative
The Ablative is used to indicate the removal of a part from the whole. It is often used with έκ or άπὀ. The emphasis is on separation, while the Genitive emphasizes kind.