The Pluperfect Tense

The Kind of Action of the Pluperfect Tense:

Linear and Punctiliar. The past tense of completed action with abiding results.

In this use, verbs that denote a present state in the perfect denote a past state in the pluperfect. These verbs are linear in force, functioning practically like imperfects when put into the past. The reality of the fact is stressed, which present it more strongly than could be done with the aorist. It must be translated into English by the simple past.

The Extensive Pluperfect

This use denotes a state following completed act in past time. Sometimes it is made clear by the context that a considerable space of time has intervened. It is used to take the reader behind the scenes. John uses it most frequently.

The Iterative Pluperfect

This use represents a past action as a series of events. It is very rare in the New Te