The Subjunctive Mood
Denotes that which is objectively possible, contingent upon certain existing and known facts.
The Hortatory Subjunctive
The speaker or writer uses the first person plural to exhort others to join with him in an action. It is translated “let us.” Here the subjunctive may be used in a main clause to express exhortation, request, or proposal, thus supplying the lack of the first person in the imperative mood.
The Subjunctive of Prohibition
This use nearly always employs the second person aorist subjunctive to express a negative entreaty or command. It forbids the beginning of an act and may be translated “don’t even start…”. The third person may be used with dependent clauses of fear or warning in addition to prohibition.
The Deliberative Subjunctive
This use denotes perplexity on the part of the writer or speaker. He uses the subjunctive to express a question which is either a simple rhetorical device which expects no answer at all, or a real question which expects an answer in the imperative mood.
The Subjunctive of Emphatic Negation
The double negative οὐ μή is employed for special stress. It is the strongest way to negate a future activity.
The Final Subjunctive
In this use the subjunctive occurs in a subordinate clause to express purpose. This usual construction employs ἳνα, However occasionally ὃπως or ὣς is used.
When the present subjunctive is used the action of the verb is prolonged or repeated.
When the aorist is used a single action is described or there is no stress on the continuation of the activity.
When the perfect subjunctive is used the completed state of the probable action is emphasized.
The Probable Future Subjunctive
This use, employing the third-class condition or any object or conditional clause, indicates that which will probably take place in the future. The subjunctive with εἂν is used, sometimes it is possible or uncertain with a potential for a decision. There is an element of likelihood involved.
Subjunctive Mood = Potential
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