The Classification of the Participle
The Ascriptive Use
The participle ascribes some fact, quality, or characteristic to the noun, or designates the noun as belonging to a general class
The participle like the adjective may modify the noun in the attributive relation. This construction may occur without an article. John 1:9
The participle may be used like an adjective in the predicate, after a verb of being.
When the participle is not accompanied by a noun it may function as a noun. This construction may be found with or without the article. It may be used as subject, object, or modifier
The Restrictive Use
The participle may denote an affirmation that distinguishes the noun which it qualifies as in some way specially defined, or marked out in its particular identity.
The Ascriptive Participle only assigns a quality or characteristic, the Restrictive Participle denotes distinctiveness.
The Telic Participle
Purpose may be denoted by the participle.
The Temporal Participle
The Participle is used in the sense of a temporal clause, where it may be translated in English by when, after, or while.
The Causal Participle
The Participle may denote that which is the grounds for action in the main verb. Here it functions in the same general relation as a causal clause introduced by because or since.
The Conditional Participle
The participle may function as the protasis of a conditional sentence.
The Concessive Participle
The participle may denote a sense of concession, being used either with or without the concessive particle.
The Instrumental Participle
The participle may indicate the means by which the action of the main verb is accomplished.
The Modal Participle
The participle may signify the manner in which the action of the main verb is accomplished. This use of the participle may be accompanied by ὡς.
The Complementary Participle
The participle may be used to […]