Present Tense of the Verb
The present tense primarily expresses linear action; however, depending on context can focus on a point in time. With the Greek verb the time is secondary to the type of action; therefore, the present tense is not restricted to only expressing action going on in the present time. The time element is expressed by the mode more than the tense; however, the progressive force of the present tense needs to be considered regardless of what mode it is used with, especially the Subjunctive and Optative modes.
Imperfect Tense of the Verb
The imperfect tense expresses a linear or continuous action in past time. The time element is more predominate because it is exclusively used with the Indicative mode.
The Aorist Tense of the Verb
The aorist tense expresses punctiliar action. It states the action is accruing without indicating continued action. The time element is basically non-existence within the tense, expect for in the Indicative mode, and therefore relies upon the context.
The Future Tense of the Verb
Primarily punctiliar, though linear in some contexts. Often used with the Indicative to indicate future time.
The Perfect Tense of the Verb
Durative and Punctiliar. Completed action with abiding results.
The Pluperfect Tense of the Verb
The Linear and Punctiliar. The past tense of completed action with abiding results.
In this use, verbs that denote a present state in the perfect denote a past state in the pluperfect. These verbs are linear in force, functioning practically like imperfects when put into the past. The reality of the fact is stressed, which present it more strongly than could be done with the aorist. It must be translated into English by the simple past.